## Number Theory in a Nutshell

Number theory is one of branches of mathematics which deals with relations between Integer Numbers (positive and negative natural numbers and zero) which shown as Z numbers.

Number theory, as a course in undergraduate of mathematics, usually starts with topic of “Divisibility”. This section involves with some sub-topics like “division algorithm”, “Greatest Common Divisor”, “Least Common Multiple”, “Euclid Algorithm”, “Prime Numbers”, “Sieve of Eratosthenes”, “Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic”, “Linear Diophantine Equations” and etc.

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## Meta-heuristic Optimization Algorithms

In many fields of science and engineering, we face with a problem which needs to optimize a mathematical function. It means we need our function to be maximum or minimum of its values. If our problem is maximization, desired function is called “utility function” or “profit function” and if the problem is minimization, the function is called “cost function” or “loss function”, but in general we could call the function as “objective function”.